Welcome to the Redox knowledge course.

Please study all the information below before taking the final test.

An approach rooted in nutrition

The focus of Redox Turf addresses growth requirements through four distinct areas – abiotic stress, soil health and root development and quality & performance.

Redox technology

Chelation | Complexing | Micro encapsulation

Redox prides itself on being a plant technology company that incorporates innovative and proprietary technology that allow the plant to grow beyond current health & performance. Three technologies that Redox incorporates are chelation, complexing, and micro encapsulation and these technologies are incorporated into each Redox product. Here are some common questions that greenkeepers & groundsmen ask about Redox’s chelation, complexing and micro encapsulation processes.

What is chelation, complexing and micro encapsulation?

Chelation is the utilisation of the charge of an organic molecule to react with the positive charge of a mineral ion.

Complexing is the utilisation of an organic molecule that carries both a positive and negative charge.

Micro encapsulation is the fusion of a mineral ion with a surfactant molecule to reduce a negative soil chemical particle.

Why is it important for the plant to utilise chelation, complexing, and micro encapsulation into Redox products?

The Redox Bio-Nutrient process of chelation, complexing, and micro encapsulation is critical for 2 main issues in turf:

1. To prevent mineral ions in Redox plant nutrient products from negatively reacting with other mineral ions in fertiliser mixes or in water. This negative reaction will form insoluble compounds and reduce plant nutrient availability.

2. To prevent mineral ions in Redox plant nutrient products from negatively reacting with other mineral ions in the soil or in the soil solution. This negative reaction will form insoluble compounds and reduce plant nutrient availability.

How does chelation, complexing, and micro encapsulation lead to better turf health and quality?

The Redox Bio-Nutrient process of Chelation, Complexing, and Micro encapsulation will improve health and performance through ensuring delivery of available plant nutrients through either soil or foliar applications.

How long has Redox been using these processes?

Redox has utilised Chelation, Complexing, and Micro encapsulation since its inception, recognising that it is not just the amount of fertiliser, but how you blend the fertiliser from the point of view of plant physiology, soil chemistry, and soil biology.

What separates Redox technology (chelation, complexing, and micro encapsulation) from other similar processes?

From the beginning, Redox Bio-Nutrients has recognised and implemented the following in its manufacturing processes:

  • The right form of nutrient. Redox not only looks at the minerals in its fertiliser blends but focuses on the raw ingredient source of the raw mineral in determining the proper blend of nutrients, chelation, complexing, and micro encapsulation.

  • A balanced blend of minerals for proper plant nutrition. The ratio of plant nutrients and other organic compounds are as important as the quantity of material applied.

  • Application rate. The efficiency of Redox Bio-Nutrients is critical in the overall nutrition of plants. Due to the increased efficiency, there is fewer negative reactions and tie-up of plant nutrients, improving the biology and efficiency of the soil, the soil biology, and the plant.

  • Application Timing. Knowing when to apply Redox Bio-Nutrients is additionally critical to the efficiency and efficacy of our nutrient blends. Improved efficiency of Redox Bio-Nutrients is accomplished thru understanding soil chemistry, water chemistry, soil biology, and plant physiology.

What other factors are considered apart from chelation, complexing and micro encapsulation?

  • While Chelation, Complexing, and Micro encapsulation are extremely important to Redox Bio-Nutrients products, there are other important factors involved in the manufacturing process:

  • The actual process itself. Often raw ingredients must be mixed in a certain order, or must be preblended, or mixed in a certain ratio. The goal of any Redox product is to create the product to compliment either soil chemistry, water chemistry, soil biology, or plant physiology.

  • A significant part of Redox Bio-Nutrient Products is the addition of organic molecules specific to plant nutrition or Abiotic Stress Defence. These organic molecules come from plant extracts, amino acid extracts, humic acid extracts, or fermentation extracts.

As you can see, it is the complete understanding of how plants grow, and the desire to work with nature that makes Redox Bio-Nutrients industry leaders in plant nutrition and Abiotic Stress Defence.

Abiotic stress

Abiotic stress reduces turf performance. Biotic stress is always preceded by abiotic stress factors.

Abiotic stress is the negative impact of non-living factors and can lead to biotic stress. Abiotic stress is caused by four fundamental factors: weather, soil health, nutritional imbalances, and oxidative stress. Turfgrass quality and performance are reduced when abiotic stress occurs.

Turfgrass naturally produces antioxidants to counteract stress. Turf must constantly adapt to the growing conditions of its environment. As stress occurs, oxygen free radicals accumulate in plant tissue. If the turfgrass is unable to combat the oxygen free radicals, premature cell degradation occurs. Redox technologies promote abiotic stress defence.

Redox products formulated for abiotic stress defence

All Redox products are tank mixable with one another.

Soil Health

A healthy soil supports optimum soil biology and plant growth. Imbalances in soil chemistry, soil biology, or plant physiology lead to reduced soil health.

Soil chemistry

The chemical makeup of any soil has a profound impact on relative soil health and the ability to support optimum plant growth. Key chemical factors are pH, salinity, soil cations, and organic matter composition.

Soil biology

The quantity and quality of soil biology is a primary indicator of soil health. Proper biology relies on various factors to support optimum function: root growth, air:water relationships, soluble carbon, and chemical balance. These factors improve nutrient availability.

Plant physiology

Plants form a symbiotic relationship between roots and soil microorganisms. This is accomplished through plant root exudates. As plants release exudates into the soil, there is an increase in quantity and diversity of soil biology.

Redox products formulated for soil health

All Redox products are tank mixable with one another.

Root development

Phosphorus, calcium, and soluble carbon require specific chemical reactions to maintain plant availability. Increased availability and solubility of these nutrients leads to improved quantity and quality of roots.


Soluble carbon is critical to proper microbial function in the soil. Adequate microbial activity in the soil directly impacts root development.

Complexing is the process whereby negatively charged anions, such as phosphorus, or positively charged mono-valent (one positive charge) cations, such as potassium, are protected from undesirable reactions by chemically protecting the nutrient ion. One highly successful manufacturing technology involves the introduction of specialized carbon compounds that satisfy the highly reactive phosphorus charge. This process enables phosphorus to move in soil and assimilate into the plant efficiently. This can increase the relative phosphorus efficiency by as much as 25 times. This technology is used in all Redox products containing phosphorus.


Calcium plays an essential role in root growth and is often overlooked. Inadequate plant available calcium will severely limit root growth.

In the absence of soil solution calcium, root growth will cease. Calcium is critical for root cap formation and strength, and thus for root growth and development. Directly behind the root cap is the zone of highly active cell division, promoting root growth. As calcium is critical in cell structure and membrane stability, the soil solution concentration of calcium will determine root growth and structure.


Optimum phosphorus nutrition is associated with the quality and quantity of the root system. Natural soil chemistry conditions tend to quickly tie-up conventional phosphate fertilisers into chemical bonds that cannot be assimilated by the plant. Conventional phosphate is often applied in excess to compensate for these undesirable soil chemical reactions.

Improving biological activity in soil improves phosphorus availability in two ways.

1. It creates increased carbon dioxide levels. Carbon dioxide present in the soil solution forms carbonic acid. This is a weak acid that solubilises phosphorus compounds making them available to the plant.

2. Increasing soil biology increases the amount of beneficial mycorrhizal fungi that can “mine” phosphorus from the soil and make it available to the plant. Applying soluble carbon to soil and limiting soil salinity both help to build soil biology.

Redox products formulated for root development

All Redox products are tank mixable with one another.

Turf quality & performance

Optimal turf quality and performance is essential for visual appeal and overall playing conditions.

Balanced Nutrition

Increasing uptake, density, and distribution of nutrients.

A fundamental strategy to minimise turf detriment from nitrogen and allow for optimum contribution to quality is to assure that the plant has balanced nutrition. Excellent potassium nutrition is vital. Potassium is a key element for plant ion balance. An outstanding tool for this benefit is K+ Micro Crystal. K+ Micro Crystal is a reacted nutrient product high in potassium and phosphorus. K+ Micro Crystal contains proprietary soluble compounds that promote antioxidant production. Higher antioxidant production reduces abiotic stress.

Nitrogen Metabolism

Converting nitrogen to amino acids and proteins.

Because of soil microbial nitrification interactions, nitrate-nitrogen is the primary form of nitrogen assimilated by plants. Nitrate-nitrogen is easily taken up by plants but cannot be utilized by plants until it goes through a reduction process. Nitrogen needs to reduce to an ammoniacal form (NH2+) to combine with carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen to form the formation of amino acids. Amino acids are the building block of the plant.

Nitrate-nitrogen stored in the cell vacuole is of minimal value to the plant if the plant does not have the resources to convert it. Excess accumulation in the cells leads to chemical and physiological changes in the cells that are detrimental. Some of these effects are weaker cells which are more susceptible to abiotic and biotic stress, increased vegetative growth, and reduced reproductive potential. Nitrogen metabolism is the relative rate of nitrate-nitrogen conversion to amino acids.

Relative nitrogen metabolism efficiency has a profound impact on reproductive potential. Turf that experience efficient nitrogen metabolism will promote more reproductive structures.

A key technology for strategic nitrogen metabolism carbon nutrition is TurfRx Supreme. TurfRx Supreme is a reacted plant nutrient that contains soluble carbon compounds derived from a proprietary fermentation process. Supreme dramatically improves the plants ability to properly metabolize nitrogen.

Ball speed / roll

Increasing cell wall integrity and strength.

Silicon is a beneficial plant nutrient that can increase plant strength and improve turf's ability to fight environmental oxidative stress. Silicon is an element that, like calcium, potassium, or zinc, is used by the plant to complete physiological processes. Similar to calcium, silicon plays a critical role in cell wall structure. Silicon and calcium uptake in conjunction has been shown to dramatically alter cell wall strength. Silicon has also been linked to phenolic compound synthesis.

Applications prior to heat events can be very helpful for reducing heat and drought stress. Calcium and silicon both are phloem immobile, which would suggest that applications to the root system will be most beneficial. However, significant research has shown benefits from timely foliar applications.


Stimulating specific plant compounds which lead to improved turf colour.

Redox chelation and complexing technology increases micro-nutrient availability. The specific ratio of each micro-nutrient will improve turf colour and surface appearance of sports fields and playing surfaces. Proprietary soluble carbon compounds improve antioxidant production and accelerate photosynthetic activity. Antioxidant production and accelerated photosynthetic activity improve Abiotic Stress Defense for playing surface recovery.

Don't forget the importance of soluble carbon in your nutrient program. Soluble carbon provides the plant carbohydrates, amino acids and other carbon compounds that increase nutrient utilisation and improve nitrogen metabolism as well as stimulating microbial activity in the soil.

Redox products formulated for turf quality & performance

All Redox products are tank mixable with one another.